Cladonia arbuscula s. str. (Wallr.) Flot.
Found on montane and lowland heathlands and on nutrient-poor soils. This species is richly branched with the tips recurved in the same direction. In Britain Cladonia arbuscula has been separated into two subspecies arbuscula and squarrosa; the latter appears to be the dominant and more common. Recent molecular data suggests that the distinction between the two subspecies is blurred.
Smith, C.W. et al. editors (2009) The Lichens of Great Britain and Irelandd
Dobson, F.S. (2018) Lichens: an Illustrated Guide to the British and Irish Species
Ahti, Stenroos & Moberg. editors (2013) Nordic Lichen Flora. Volume 5 Cladoniaceae